University of Chicago’s Richard H. Thaler, one of the founders of behavioral economy and finance, was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Economics for shedding light on how human weaknesses such as a lack of rationality and self-control can ultimately affect markets.

The 72 -year-old, co-author of the 2008 best-seller “Nudge,” has ” built a bridge between the economic and psychological investigates of individual decision-making ,” the Royal Swedish Academy of Science said Monday.

” By investigating the consequences of limited rationality, social preferences, and deficiency of self-control, he has shown how these human traits systematically affect individual decisions as well as market outcomes ,” the academy said.

His ” Nudge ” hypothesi, outlined along with former White House adviser Cass Sunstein, suggests small incentives can nudge people into constructing certain decisions. His project has informed legislators go looking for ways to influence voters and shape societies at a time when budget deficits limited their scope to expend. Former U.S. President Barack Obama and ex-U.K. Prime Minister David Cameron both appointed squads to investigate if behavioral economics could be used to save their governments fund.

For example, writing to Britons to inform them that most people in their township had already paid their taxes was found to speed up pays. People were also found to be more likely to insulate their lofts if they were offered help clearing them.

Read more: Bloomberg View’s Justin Fox discusses Thaler’s work

On a bellow with correspondents after the announcement, Thaler said the most important impact of his research is” the recognition that economic agents are human, and that economic simulates have to incorporate that .”

Thaler also made a cameo appearance in the 2015 film” The Big Short ,” sitting alongside the actress Selena Gomez as they played blackjack. Asked about the hot-hand fallacy in its relationship with President Donald J. Trump, Thaler said on the call that he was disappointed his cinema career wasn’t part of the “official” announcement, adding that Trump” would do well to watch that movie .”

Thaler developed the assumption of” mental accounting ,” explaining how people stimulate financial decisions by creating separate accounts in their heads, focusing on the narrow impact rather than the overall effect.

His research on “fairness,” which showed how consumer concerns may stop firms from raising costs during a period of high demand, but not in times of rising costs, has furthermore been influential, according to the Swedish academy. He shed light on how people succumb to short-term lures, which is why many people fail to programme and save for old age.

Thaler’s body of work includes insights on the ways in which limited rationality, social predilections and a lack of self control affect decisions that shape marketplace outcomes. He has analyse how American football teams construct poor options when drafting players and how quiz present contenders take risks.

His other works include” Quasi-Rational Economics ,”” The Winner’s Curse: Contradictions and Anomalies of Economic Life” and” Advances in Behavioral Finance .”

He’s the director of the Center for Decision Research, and is the co-director, with now fellow Nobel laureate, Robert Shiller, of the Behavioral Economics Project at the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Born in New Jersey, Thaler graduated with a bachelor’s degree from the Case Western Reserve University in 1967. He received a master’s degree from the University of Rochester in 1970 and a doctorate in 1974, also from Rochester. Thaler joined the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business in 1995.

Previous Winners

Last year’s economics prize went to Harvard University’s Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for their work on contract hypothesi and its role in shaping everything from executive pay to public sector privatizations. Previous laureates have included Milton Friedman, James Tobin, Paul Krugman and Friedrich August von Hayek.

Daniel Kahneman and Vernon L. Smith also shared the 2002 prize in economics for their work in psychological and experimental economics.

Annual awards for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, peace and literature were established in the will of Alfred Nobel, the Swedish inventor of dynamite, who died in 1896. The award in economic sciences was added by Sweden’s central bank in 1968. The total amount for each of the 2017 trophies is 9 million kronor ($ 1.1 million ), up from 8 million kronor last year. The economics award brings to an aim this year’s Nobel prize cycle.

Thaler said on the call that he will try to expend the money” as irrationally as is practicable .”