Report predicts rise in robotics will usher in industrial revolution 4.0 varying working practices and legal frameworks

Innovation in artificial intelligence and robotics could force governments to legislate for quotas of human laborers, upend traditional working practices and pose novel dilemmas for insuring driverless vehicles, according to a report by the International Bar Association.

The survey, which suggests that a third of graduate level undertakings around the world may eventually be replaced by machines or software, warns that legal frameworks governing employment and safety are becoming rapidly outdated.

The competitive advantage of poorer, emerging economies based on cheaper personnels will soon be eroded as robot production lines and intelligent computer systems undercut the cost of human endeavour, the study suggests.

While a German car laborer expenses more than 40( 34) an hour, a robot expenses between only 5 and 8 per hour. A production robot is thus cheaper than a worker in China, the report notes. Nor does a robot become ill, have children or go on strike and[ it] is not entitled to annual leave.

The 120 -page report, which focuses on the legal implications of rapid technological change, has been produced by a specialist squad of the jobs lawyers from the International Bar Association, which acts as a global forum for the legal profession.

The report cover-ups both changes already transforming run and the future consequences of what it words industrial revolution 4.0. The three predating revolutions are listed as: industrialisation, electrification and digitalisation. Industry 4.0 involves the integration of the physical and software in production and the service sector. Amazon, Uber, Facebook, smart factories and 3D publish, its mentions, are among current pioneers.

The reports leading author, Gerlind Wisskirchen an employment lawyer in Cologne who is vice-chair of the IBAs global employment institute, told: What is new about the present revolution is the alacrity with which change is occurring, and the broadness of impact being brought about by AI and robotics.

Jobs at all levels in society presently are carried out by humans are at risk of being reassigned to robots or AI, and the legislation once in place to protect the rights of human laborers may be no longer fit for intent, in a number of cases … New labour and employment legislation is urgently needed to keep pace with increased automation.

Peering into the future, the authors suggest that governments will have to decide what undertakings should be performed exclusively by humans for example, caring for newborns. The government could introduce a kind of human quota in any sector, and decide whether it intends to introduce a made by humans label or tax the use of machines, the report says.

Increased mechanical freedom will make problems of how to define legal responsibility for accidents involving new technology such as driverless vehicles. Will it be the owner, the passengers, or manufacturers who pay the insurance?

The liability issues may become an insurmountable obstacle to the introduction of fully automated driving, the study cautions. Driverless forklifts are already being used in factories. Over the past 30 years there have been 33 employee deaths caused by robots in the US, it notes.

Limits, it mentions, will have to be imposed on some aspects of machine freedom. The survey adopts the military principle, endorsed by the Ministry of Defence, that there must always be a human in the loop to avoid the growth and deployment of entirely autonomous drones that could be programmed to select their own targets.

A no-go region in the social sciences of AI is research into intelligent weapon systems that open fire without a human decision having been constructed, the report states. The consequences of malfunctions of such machines are immense, so it is all the more desirable that not only the US, but also the United Commonwealth discusses a ban on autonomous weapon systems.

The term artificial intelligence( AI) was first coined by the American computer scientist John McCarthy in 1955. He believed that all aspects of study or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. Software developers are still attempting to achieve his goal.

The gap between economic reality in the self-employed gig economy and existing legal frameworks is already growing, the lawyers note. The new information economy is likely to result in more monopolies and a greater income gap between rich and poor because many people will end up unemployed, whereas highly qualified, creative and ambitious professionals will increase their wealth.

Among the professions deemed most likely to disappear are accountants, court clerks and desk policemen at fiscal authorities.

Even some lawyers risk becoming unemployed. An intelligent algorithm went through the European Court of Human Rights decisions and acquired patterns in the text, the report records. Having learned from these cases, the algorithm was able to predict the outcome of other instances with 79% accuracy … According to a study conducted by[ the auditing firm] Deloitte, 100,000 jobs in the English legal sector will be automated in the next 20 years.

The pioneering nation in respect of robot density in the industrial sector is South Korea, which has 437 robots for every 10,000 employees in the processing industry, while Japan has 323 and Germany 282.

Robots may soon invade our home and leisure environments. In the Henn-na Hotel in Sasebo, Japan, actroids robots with a human likeness are deployed, the report mentions. In addition to receiving and serving the guests, they are responsible for cleaning the chambers, bearing the luggage and, since 2016, preparing the food.

The robots are able to respond to the needs of the guests in three speeches. The inns plan is to replace up to 90% of government employees by use robots in inn runnings with a few human employees monitoring CCTV cameras to see whether they need to intervene if troubles originate.

The traditional workplace is disintegrating, with more part hour employees, distance working, and the blurring of professional and private hour, the report observes. It is being replaced by the latte macchiato workplace where employees or freelance laborers in the cafe around the corner, working from their laptops.

The workplace may eventually only serve the purpose of preserving social network between colleagues.

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